1940: World War II had started two years prior was already causing devastation to the world. Europe was not a safe place to be due to the actions of Nazi Germany and those who fought to put an end to Hitler’s reign. Many artists fled to America to escape war. For some, it was to escape the Holocaust. On May 20th, The Germans opens its concentration and extermination camp ‘Auschwitz-Birkenau’ in a invaded Poland. Between May 1940 and January 1945, around 1.1 million people were killed there.
1941: The United States of America had two main reasons to go to war. Britain was seeking support from allies to eliminate the oppostition . However, some would argue that America was forced into war when the japanese arrived. on February 9th Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, asked the United States to show its support by sending arms to the British: “Give us the tools, and we will finish the job.”
On December 7th, 2,459 Americans were killed and 1,282 wounded after the Japanese attacked the base of Pearl Harbor. The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day (December 8th the United States declared war on Japan. Domestic support for isolationism, which had been strong, disappeared.
1942/3: Due to the war, industries around the world were suffering because of the lack of resources. With all the conflict going on, the future of the arts was not looking bright. Fashion industries were having trouble which the lack of material being traded and filmmakers were struggling to make money while the war was going on.
European artists and intellectuals fled to the United States from Hitler and the Holocaust, bringing new ideas created in disillusionment. War production pulled The United States out of the Great Depression. Women were needed to replace men who had gone off to war, and so the first great exodus of women from the home to the workplace began. ‘Rosie the Riveter’ became a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the factories that produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. Rosie the Riveter is commonly used as symbol of feminism and women’s economic power.
The term “Rosie the Riveter” was first used in 1942 in a song of the same name written by Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb. The song was recorded by numerous artists, including the popular big band leader Kay Kyser, and became a national hit.The song portrays “Rosie” as a tireless assembly line worker, doing her part to help the American war effort. War production pulled The United States out of the Great Depression. Women were needed to replace men who had gone off to war, and so the first great exodus of women from the home to the workplace began.
1944: The War was dying down. Germany was become weak in their offence and Hitler’s plan for world dominance was quickly becoming a myth. European artists and intellectuals who fled to the United States from Hitler and the Holocaust, delivered new ideas created in disillusionment. Propaganda was used to expose the Terrors of Nazi-Germany and its allies and Hitler knew this was something he could not stop. Artists began to relies that Propaganda was used by Hitler in his attempts to control his large number of followers. By 1944, Film makers, artists, musicians, civil rights and political leaders used Imagery to inform their people of the dangers in the world.
1945: The war came to end during the summer. Adolf Hitler committed suicide and the world had witnessed six years of destruction. The Japanese surrendered after the United States proved they had more offensive power by dropping the first Atomic Bomb On Japanese Soil. Britain asked help from the people of the Caribbean to rebuild their nation. Propaganda was used in this attempt and it worked in 1948 when The Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury, carrying 493 passengers from Jamaica wishing to start a new life in the United Kingdom. The passengers were the first large group of West Indian immigrants to the UK after the Second World War. As Adolf Hitler systematically eliminated artists whose ideals didn’t agree with his own, many emigrated to the United States, where they had a profound effect on American artists. The center of the western art world shifted from Paris to New York. To show the raw emotions, art became more abstract. Abstract Expressionism, also known as the New York School, was chaotic and shocking in an attempt to maintain humanity in the face of insanity. Jackson Pollock was the leading force in abstract expressionism.